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Guidelines for Writing a Book Without Plagiarism

 Artikel Perpustakaan  22 November 2021  Hendrikus  76  570
Guidelines for Writing a Book Without Plagiarism

Guidelines for Writing a Book

Without Plagiarism

Publisher Deepublish






Khairul Maqin

Ulin Nafiah


Beniardi Nurdiansyah


Hendrikus Franz Josef


LIST OF WRITERTEAM.............................................................................2

TABLE OF CONTENTS...................................................………………….3

1. Types of Plagiarism in Scientific Writing Techniques ............................. 4

2. Paraphrasing Writing Techniques to Avoid Plagiarism............. .............. 7

3. Paraphrasing: Another Way to Avoid Plagiarism .................................... 10

4. Try These 5 Anti Plagiarism Applications!....................... ...................... 14

5. 2 Tips to Avoid Plagiarism in Scientific Work...................................... 17

Types of Plagiarism in Scientific Writing Techniques

by: Ulin Nafiah

In the technique of writing a scientific book, quoting is something that is not

we can avoid. Especially if it will be published by a book publisher.

Not a few academics use writing techniques with plagiarism which of course will damage the academic image that has been built for a long time. Not only academic image, but also related book publishers. Basically, plagiarism can be divided into two, namely intentional and unintentional plagiarism.

This technique of writing with intentional plagiarism can occur due to copying other people's writing without mentioning the source. Temporary Unintentional plagiarism can occur when we quote other people's articles or writings carelessly. Besides, plagiarism inadvertently can occur due to negligence. However, it is still fatal. For example, haphazardly paraphrasing a sentence with just replace words without changing sentence structure or vice versa. Another omission that can also be fatal is the accuracy in writing the bibliography. Even though we have do citations according to the guidelines in the content of the article, but if the source is not included in the bibliography, it can be categorized as unintentional plagiarism.

In addition to the two plagiarisms, using your own published scientific work without citations can be categorized as an act of writing technique with plagiarism. This is usually called self-plagiarism or auto-plagiarism. M. Salman A.N in the material for Scientific Writing Ethics and Plagiarism explained that the reuse of data or research results that are almost the same as those in published papers without referring to (referring) the paper (deliberately hidden) can be considered as paper duplication. Furthermore, the action becomes illegal if the copyright (copyright) of the previous publication has been transferred to another party (eg journal publisher).

In view of the sanctions that will be imposed on plagiarism, whether carried out by students or lecturers/researchers/educational staff as regulated in Minister of National Education Regulation No. 17 of 2010 is not easy, it is necessary to make several efforts to avoid writing techniques with plagiarism, including:

1. Stimulating a Writing Culture and Literacy Awareness

Learning to write has started since entering kindergarten, but has not yet become a culture. Writing activities seem to be an exclusive thing, which is only done by certain people, so it is necessary to introduce writing culture from an early age. In addition, writing culture must also be balanced with good literacy awareness. With a good literacy culture, it is hoped that awareness will arise to appreciate the work of others by Include sources of writing according to existing guidelines.

2. Socialization about Plagiarism

Socialization about what and how plagiarism is and efforts to prevent it on an ongoing basis throughout the community, especially in schools and colleges. The government can cooperate with schools and universities as an environment that produces academics to understand ethics and good writing guidelines for students and educators.

3. Creating a Healthy Academic Climate

Schools and universities must be able to create a healthy climate in order to prevent the emergence of writing techniques with academic plagiarism through the mechanism of checking & rechecking a written work. One of them is by utilizing technological developments such as plagiarism scanner software

4. Strict Sanctions

Provide strict sanctions and provide a deterrent effect for plagiarists. Sanctions must be carried out fairly and impartially. If the above can be applied, there will be awareness of the importance of accountability in writing an academic work.

Not just writing carelessly as a requirement for graduation or accreditation, but as a quality and accountable academic work. Thus the article entitled Types of Plagiarism in Scientific Writing Techniques. Safe write, keep strong!.


1. Bahan Tayang Etika Penulisan Karya Ilmiah dan Plagiarisme, M. Salman A.N. (ITB)

2. White Paper The Ethics of Sel-Plagiarism, iThenticate 3. Memahami Plagiarisme Akademik, Hendrawan


Paraphrasing Writing Techniques to Avoid Plagiarism

By: Ulin Nafiah

To avoid plagiarism when citing sources, you can paraphrase. How to write a paraphrase?

The development of technology is undeniably easier to access information without the barriers of space and time. Wherever and whenever, we can get information that

needed, including obtaining references in writing scientific papers. However, this convenience has not been accompanied by good literacy awareness. The ethics of copy-pasting or citing sources of information has not become a matter of concern in academic culture. As a result, not a few are careless in doing copy-paste, especially those from the internet.

Copy-paste culture seems to have become an open secret among students and students. With easy access to information, it is not difficult to get material or information references to complete academic assignments. If this continues, it will further increase the culture of plagiarism. Not even a few academics who involved in plagiarism. To prevent and overcome this, the government through Permendiknas RI No. 17 of 2010 clearly in article 12 states that sanctions for students, lecturers/researchers/educational staff if proven plagiarism, namely:

For Student

Lecturer/Researcher/Educational Personnel

a. Warning

b. Written warning

c. Postponement of giving as a right student

d. Cancellation of one or more values courses obtained by students

e. Dismissal with honor from

student status

f. Dismissal with no respect

from status as a student

g. Cancellation of diploma if student have graduated from a program

h. Cancellation of diploma obtained from

the university concerned

a. Warning

b. Written warning

c. Delay in granting rights to lecturers/researchers/educational staff

d. Demotion and academic/functional positions

e. Revocation of the right to be proposed as a professor/professor/researcher

major for those who qualify

f. Dismissal with honor from status as lecturer/researcher/staff education

g. Dismissal with respect from the status as a lecturer/researcher/personnel


The sanctions as mentioned in the table are sequentially starting from the lightest to the heaviest. Further details regarding sanctions forstudents/lecturers/Researchers

/educational staff who are proven to have committed plagiarism can be seen in Article 12 paragraphs (3), (4), (5), and (6) as well as article 13. Considering the plagiarism sanction is not light, then to avoid it, it is necessary to understand the citation technique in a scientific work, one of which is paraphrasing .

Paraphrasing is the re-disclosure of an article in a new form without intending to change its original meaning. Paraphrasing is often also referred to as a no quote Directly

(http://kontenesia.com/cara-menhindari-plagiarism/). In an online publication from the Purdue University Online Writing Laboratory (http://owl.english.purdue.edu),it is presented a number of steps of writing techniques that can be done in paraphrasing a reading, namely: Read over and over again the writing of the other person you want to paraphrase until you get the meaning;

As you read, make notes on key words from the text; then, close the book and keep it away from us; Begin to write down the meaning of the writings that we read by using our own words and language style. When finished, compare our version of writing with the original version, to make sure that our version has the same meaning as the original version.

Take note of the original literature for use in our article literature. From a number of references, in paraphrasing, in addition to using the word "according to" A, the following words are widely used: argue, propose, describe, observe, record, prove, admit, reject, and believe.

The table below is an example of a technique for writing paraphrasing sentences obtained from several sources, which can be used as a guide.

Original sentence (translation): (Booth et al., 2005, p. 203)

It is very difficult to define plagiarism when you are summarizing or paraphrasing. The two are indeed different, but the boundaries of paraphrasing and summarizing

so thin that you don't even notice if you're moving from paraphrasing to summarizing, then moving on to plagiarizing. Whatever your goal, a very similar paraphrase to the original naskah considered as plagiarism, even though you have written the source.

Paraphrasing sentences that are still plagiarized.

It is very difficult to define plagiarism when summaries and paraphrases are involved in it, because even though they are different, the boundaries between the two are very vague, and an author may not know when he is summarizing, paraphrasing or plagiarizing. Even so, a very close paraphrase with the source being counted as the result of plagiarism, even though the original source is listed there (Booth et al., 2005, p. 203).

Paraphrasing sentences that fall between plagiarism and non-plagiarism

It is very difficult to distinguish between summary, paraphrase and plagiarism. You run the risk of plagiarism if you paraphrase very similarly, even if you didn't mean to plagiarize and include original manuscript source (Booth et. al., 2005, p. 203).

Better and acceptable paraphrasing sentences

According to Booth, Colomb, and Williams (2005), writers sometimes plagiarize without them knowing because they think they are summarizing, when they paraphrase too closely to the original, an activity called plagiarism. Even when the activity is done accidentally and the source of the literature is written down (p. 203).

(Source: Nurhajati Hakim (ed.). 2016. Guidelines for Writing Thesis and Dissertation of Andalas University Graduate Program, http://tinyurl.com/hh3sj34.).

According to the table above, it can be concluded that basically paraphrasing is re-expressing other people's ideas/opinions/thoughts by using their own language and sentence structure. In addition, writing paraphrases must also include the complete source of reading including the author's name, year and page. To improve the technical skills of paraphrasing, of course, you have to practice it often.


1. Kontenesia. 2015. Cara Ampuh Menghindari Jeratan Plagiarisme, http://kontenesia.com/cara-menghindari-plagiarisme/

2. Hakim, Nurhajati (ed.). 2016. Pedoman Penulisan Tesis dan Disertasi Program Pascasarjana Universitas Andalas, http://tinyurl.com/hh3sj34. [diakses 13 April 2016] 3. Purdue OWL. 2016. Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/

Paraphrasing: Another Way to Avoid Plagiarism

By: Khoirul Maqin

Writing Techniques Another way to avoid plagiarism when writing a book is to use indirect citations. Quoting indirectly can be realized in three forms, namely paraphrasing, summarizing or drawing conclusions. These three things are ways of citing that require different skills. And it's important to do when writing a book

Paraphrasing is one way to borrow ideas/ideas from a source without plagiarizing. According to the Oxford Advanced Leaner's Dictionary, paraphrasing is “a way of expressing what someone else has written and said using different words to make it easier to understand.” The citation used in the paraphrasing technique is a quote that uses one's own words to express the same idea. So that it can applied when writing a book. And the activity is legal. Apart from making ideas easier to understand, paraphrasing can also be used to maintain coherence and the integrity of the flow of writing.

According to OWL Purdue, a website that provides many reviews about writing academic books (Purdue OWL, 2016: ttps://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/),

paraphrasing is defined as follows:

1) a person's ability to rewrite other people's ideas or ideas in their own words and present

them in a new form;

2) It is a legal and legal way to borrow other people's ideas,

3) a restatement that is more complete and detailed than a summary. The technique of

paraphrasing is a very valuable skill because paraphrasing is better than quoting

information from a paragraph or writing that is less prominent.

Paraphrasing helps the writer to control the temptation to quote too often. The mental processes required for the success of a paraphrase help the writer to fully understand the meaning of the source text that he will adapt.

Each writer has and developed his own technique to develop his expertise in paraphrasing. This technique is unique. For novice writers, he needs to learn to develop paraphrasing skills. If you are not used to paraphrasing, here are 6 effective writing techniques for paraphrasing like this: provided by the Purdue OWL guide (Purdue OWL, 2016: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/):

1. Read the source text again until you understand the content of the text.

2. Remove the original text/manuscript and rewrite the ideas in the text in a paper.

3. List some words under your paraphrase to remind you go back to how you understood

the original text. On the note card, write down keywords that indicate the subject or

theme of your paraphrase.

4. Compare your paraphrase with the original to check whether all ideas, especially the

important ones, have been included in the paraphrase the.

5. Use double quotes to identify special terms, terminology, or a phrase that you borrowed

from the original, and which you take is exactly the same as original script.

6. Write the source (including the page) on your notepad so that this make it easier for you

to write library sources or references, if you meant to take the paraphrase

If you still have difficulty in paraphrasing, then start practicing from the easiest level first, which is paraphrasing at the sentence level. Before paraphrase an article when you write a science book. If you are quite proficient in paraphrasing sentences, then paraphrase a paragraph. The following is example of paraphrasing for sentence level first:

Example 1:

original sentence :

A shock in the field of virtual reality (virtual reality) occurred in 1961 with the appearance of Sensoramanya Heilig. Paraphrasing: The work of Heillig known as Sensorama brought a significant change in the history of virtual reality (Krisnawati, 2000, p. 55).


The work of Heillig known as the name Sensorama brought about a significant change in the history of virtual reality (Krisnawati, 2000, p. 55).

Example 2:

original sentence : Computers are able to take people to places they have never been before, including to the surface of other planets.


Through computers, people can go places they have never known. (Krisnawati, 2000, p. 57).

As a beginner, the paraphrasing above is still allowed. However, if you have studied and have the skills to paraphrase, both Booth and guidance from Purdue University OWL explained that paraphrasing very similar to the original manuscript is still considered plagiarism, even though the original source is listed there. This is a thing that very tricky and requires a lot of practice. For example, consider examples 3 & 4:

Example 3:

Original Script:

It is very tricky to define plagiarism when you are summarizing or paraphrasing. They are different, but the boundaries between paraphrasing and summarizing are so thin that you don't notice if you go from paraphrasing to summarizing, then move on to plagiarism. Whatever your purpose, paraphrasing that closely resembles the original is considered plagiarism, even if you have credited the source (Booth et al., 2005, p 203).

The paragraphs below are considered plagiarized because the paraphrases are very similar to the original manuscript:

It is very difficult to define plagiarism when summary and paraphrase are involved, because even though they are different, the boundaries between the two are very vague, and a writer may not know when he is summarizing, paraphrasing or plagiarizing. However, the paraphrasing very close to the source is counted as the result of plagiarism, even though the original source is listed there.

The next example shows a paraphrase that falls between plagiarism and allowable:

It is very difficult to distinguish between summary, paraphrase and plagiarism. You run the risk of plagiarism if you paraphrase very similarly, even if you didn't intend to plagiarize and cite the original source.

The words in the paragraph above can still be traced to the source by a careful reader, if he has read the source. The following is an example of a paraphrase that

safe and not considered plagiarism:

According to Booth, Colomb, and Williams, writers sometimes plagiarize without them realizing it because they are too excited to summarize, when they paraphrase too closely to the original, an activity called plagiarism. Even when these activities are carried out with accidentally and the source of the library was written down (p. 203).

Example 4:

Original Script:

Students often overuse direct quotations when taking notes, as a result they use excessive quotations in their scientific paper assignments. Perhaps only about 10% of the final manuscript is allowed to appear in direct quotation form. Therefore, you should try to limit the amount of writing that exactly matches the source material when you are writing a book or note. Lester, James D. Writing Research papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.

Legal paraphrasing:

In scientific papers, students often overcite, and fail to change the quoted material to the desired level. Since the problem stems from note-taking, it is very important to minimize the recording of exact word-for-word material (Lester


Plagiarized version of paraphrasing:

Students often use too many direct quotes when they are writing books or notes. As a result, there are many direct quotes in their final paper. Only about 10% of papers should contain direct quotes. Thus, it is very important to limit the amount of material copied when taking notes.

This is an article on paraphrasing writing techniques. Hopefully it will help you to write a paper without plagiarism.


1. Purdue OWL. 2016. Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/

2. Elder, Cristyn, et al. 2010. Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/930/02/

Try These 5 Anti Plagiarism Apps!

by: Ulin Nafiah

1. DupliChecker

This application can be accessed free of charge at http://www.duplichecker.com/. After entering the website, there will be several menus. Where if you want to check plagiarism, simply copy-paste the desired text in the box provided then click the search button. In this application, users do not have to register to use, but can only use it once a day if they do not register. Not only to check writing in the form of text, this application also provides several other menu options such as spell checkers and batch checkers that can be used in writing books.

2. Unplug

If you want to try this application, you can access it via https://unplag.com/. Where in this application there is a choice of categorization for students or students, for students

journalists and writers, and educators. Unfortunately, this paid application cannot be obtained for free but must be subscribed. Unplag allows us to directly simultaneously scan texts of different formats as needed within 4 seconds per text-scan, without any slowdown. This application can check the smallest part fake results. Can check up to 16 billion pages and documents on Google and Bing. Every time you finish checking, Unplag will provide a plagiarism report. In that report provided the percentage of similarity and authenticity of scanned files, as well as all highlighted elements with hyperlinks to their original sources. In addition, all files will be stored safely in a personal account that has been created through Unplag. Before subscribing, we can test this check with a free trial of 275 words that can be used in writing your book. (Agustin, 2015: https://www.brilio.net/life/ini-7-application-onlineterbaik-pendetect-plagiasi-keren-150407d.html).

3. PaperRater

Almost the same as DupliChecker this application is free not paid. Not only that, this application can also be used for Grammar Checking, and Writing Suggestion. To check plagiarism, it can be done by copy-pasting the text that we want directly in the box that is already available or by uploading a file then the system will detect whether there is writing

indicated plagiarism in it. In this application there is no word limit like DupliChecker which limits the maximum word count to 1000 words in every quest to write a book. To try this application can be accessed at https://www.paperrater.com/.

4. WriterCheck

To use this application we must subscribe and of course pay. Where slightly different from Unplag, in WriterChecker there is no free trial. Where in addition to checking whether an article is plagiarized or not, this application can also be used for Grammar Checker and Tutoring which can provide criticism of writing we. As quoted from brilio.net, to scan text, we can upload documents in Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, PostScript, .pdf, html, and rtf formats. After process the scan is complete, we will get a plagiarism report marked with a direct link highlight to the plagiarism source. Unfortunately, during the use of this application, we can only enter 5,000 words. If more than 5,000 words, an additional fee will be charged. This application you can use in writing your book. It can be found at http://en.writecheck.com/.

5. Copyscape

The app offers two accounts, free and paid. Copyscape offers site protection (applies to bloggers) from plagiarism on a daily or weekly basis. Whenever we find a site whose content is similar to ours, we will get a warning email. With Copyscape, you can create personal databases and perform checking for new files uploaded against people who are in our account. In addition, we can use the anti-plagiarism banner from Copyscape to give a no plagiarism warning. Apart from that, the weakness of this app is that the free trial is only valid for checking content with the help of URL checking only. Also, if you upload a file containing 2,000 words or more, this application may fail to scan. (Agustin, 2015: https://www.brilio.net/life/ini-7-application-online-terbaik-pendetect-plagiasikeren-150407d.html). Interested? To try this app you can access it at http://www.copyscape.com/

6. Plagiarism

Unlike Copyscape, which requires a subscription, this application allows us to use it for free. In this application, in addition to checking plagiarism in text form, it can also check plagiarism in the form of URLs and files. The maximum number of words in the available search box is 5,000 character. The interesting thing in this application is that there are two types of checks to choose from, namely Quick Search and Deep Search. Especially for deep search (Deep Search) we have to sign up, become and get an account to use it. More information about the application can be accessed on the page ttp://www.plagium.com/en/plagiarismchecker.

In addition to these six applications, there are still many anti-plagiarism applications, both paid for or that we can use for free to write books that are far from complete plagiarism.


1. Wahyuningsih, Agustin. 2015. Ini 7 Aplikasi Online Terbaik Pendeteksi Plagiasi, https://www.brilio.net/life/ini-7-aplikasi-online-terbaik-pendeteksi-plagiasikeren-150407d.html.

2 Tips to Avoid Plagiarism in Scientific Work

by: Ulin Nafiah

In writing scientific papers, of course, it cannot be separated from quotations from other people's ideas, ideas, and/or theories that have been previously published to support our opinions. wake up in a letter. The quote cannot be done at will. There are ethics and guidelines in listing other people's ideas, ideas, and/or theories in a scientific paper that we compiled. This needs to be done to avoid academic cheating in the form of plagiarism that often occurs.

To prevent and overcome plagiarism, the government through the Regulation of the Minister of Education of the Republic of Indonesia No. 17 of 2010 clearly in Article 1 paragraph (1) states, "Plagiarism is an act intentionally or unintentionally in obtaining or trying to obtain credit or value for a scientific work, by quoting part or all of the work and or scientific work of another party which is recognized as scientific work, without acknowledging the source appropriately and adequately”. Meanwhile, in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) it is stated that, “Plagiarism is taking other people's writings (opinions and so on) and making them look like their own compositions (opinions, etc.), for example publishing other people's writings on their own behalf; copy". In this regard, it is important to understand the citation guidelines that exist in writing scientific papers as a form of respecting the results of other people's thoughts and to avoid plagiarism.

To avoid plagiarism, it is necessary to know some actions that fall into the category of plagiarism, as for the scope, namely:

(1) Quoting words or sentences, others without using quotation marks and without

identifying the source;

(2). Using other people's ideas, views or theories without mentioning the identity of the


(3) Using facts (data, information) belonging to others without mentioning the identity of

the source;

(4) acknowledging other people's writings as their own;

(5) Paraphrasing (changing other people's sentences into their own sentences without

changing the idea) without mention the identity of the source;

(6) Submit a scientific work produced and/or been published by others as if it were their

own work. The perpetrators of plagiarism (plagiarism) can be carried out by

individuals or groups who plagiarize other people's ideas, ideas and/or theories as well

their own work (self plagiarism).

(How) Writing Techniques Avoid Plagiarism?.

As the definition of plagiarism has been mentioned, it is important to understand how to include other people's ideas, ideas, and/or theories to compose a scientific paper.

the good one. There are at least two things that can be done to avoid plagiarism, namely:

1. Learn the Correct Quoting Techniques In writing scientific papers, it takes the ideas, ideas, and/or theories of others that we quote to support the arguments we build. Quotations can be taken from print media, online, audio, or from audio-visual in the form of video or radio. How to quote in an article can be done through direct quotations and indirect quotations. Following are some examples of good citations:

“The Basic Needs Approach has an international dimension because the role of foreign aid and foreign trade is felt to be important in accelerating the fulfillment of basic needs. In this regard, according to Syahrir (1980, p.35). In discussing this Basic Needs Concept

at least the definition, methodology and measurement must first be discussed as well as sectoral and inter-sectoral issues.”

Meanwhile, to avoid quoting sentences that are too long that are not relevant to the theme of the writing, the writing technique is to take only the parts that are considered important. The sentence fragments are replaced with three dots (…) or ellipsis as follows.

Excerpts from long sentences from the original:

“Basic Needs has not yet been recognized as a theory of development. Debates using philosophical, semantic and definitional arguments can develop into endless debates. Instead, I will argue that compared to the theory of economic growth and the theory of income distribution and their measures (whether with Pareto optimality, Gini index and so on) the concept of need The subject has not been sufficiently discussed as a theory in the development literature. (Shahrir 1986, p. 35)”

Excerpts of long sentences after the ellipsis:

“Basic needs have not been recognized as a theory of development … compared to the theory of economic growth and the theory of income distribution and their measures (whether with Pareto optimality,

Gini and so on) the concept of Basic Needs has not been sufficiently discussed as a theory in the development literature (Shahrir 1986, p. 35).”

For writing the source of a quote that is included in the text like the quote above, it is usually done by using brackets at the end of the sentence. In parentheses it is stated

surname or last name of the author, year and followed by the page number after the comma. This is done not only to avoid plagiarism but also to make it easier for readers to find out the source information used in the paper.

2. Paraphrasing Writing Techniques

Paraphrasing writing technique is expressing other people's ideas/ideas by using their own words, without changing the intent or meaning of ideas/ideas while still mentioning the source. To paraphrase a sentence from the original author requires technical skills that must be practiced often, because in a scientific writing a writer must do more paraphrasing than citation. Referring to the guidelines developed in the “Handbook for Student” at MIT, USA., there are at least six technical/technical ways to paraphrase the sentences presented in the original essay, namely:

a. Use synonyms for all words that are not commonly used in the original essay. Words

like people, world, food are common words that don't need synonyms anymore.

b. Change the sentence structure.

c. Change the sentence stress from active to passive or vice versa.

d. Reducing clauses that do not need to be deciphered or interpreted by the author (quote).

e. Changing the passages of the original author's speech.

f. Write complete reading sources. More about paraphrasing can be seen at :



1. Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional RI No. 17 Tahun 2010 Tentang Pencegahan dan Penanggulangan

Plagiat di Perguruan Tinggi, http://sipma.ui.ac.id/files/dokumen/U_DOSEN/permendiknas-no-


2. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (online), http://kbbi.web.id/plagiat

3. Panduan Anti Plagiarism, http://lib.ugm.ac.id/ind/?page_id=327

4. Panduan Penulisan Ilmiah dan Kepustakaan, http://pasca.unand.ac.id/id/wpcontent/uploads/


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