Library Trends in Era of Internet of Thing
Hendrikus Franz Josef, M.Si
Regional Library and Archive Office of
In 2020 the library will increasingly become a cyber library. Cyber library is a library that uses internet information technology devices in every management activity and information service to users. Thus, if the information technology device becomes its main tool. Cyber libraries will be the purpose of library services for users with various ease of access to information with the synergy between the library and the internet, but the printed collection will always be served to users, not to be eliminated. Of course, libraries make cyber services only limited to duplication of printed bibliographic data, if you want cyber-oriented services, the library must procure collections in the form of e-books or e-journals whose source of information is full text that is the content we can get not limited to document representative. Cyber libraries can exchange information with other libraries through the hyperlink format to update the contents of more actual information. To build the first stage of a cyber library is the availability of a library information management system or commonly referred to as a library automation system which of course the automation system is prepared to manage and organize digital documents. This automation system is in the form of library automation software. This software library is usually obtained by libraries by buying or making their own with the help of software developers in accordance with library needs. However, methods like this if not studied in depth by the library will cause problems when implementing software to be served immediately. A wise way to get library automation software oriented toward cyber services is to use open source software, which is obtained free of charge. The library only downloads from the internet and can directly implement it for the library.
The library is a source of information where information is stored in various forms of collections including print and non-print collections. As an information center in a society that is hungry for information, of course, the library must provide new innovations to users. In this super era of technology, information and communication, everything starts from what was originally a manual to digital. It is inevitable that in this age of technology, libraries are starting to move from things that are manual to being digital. This is nothing but to achieve satisfaction of being a library consumer. With the emergence of several devices that support library activities so that library activities are also optimal, the library has begun to develop. In the life of the library, it is now beginning to enter the library's new paradigm which has differences that are sensitive to the old paradigm of the library.
Literally understanding perpustakaan (in Indonesian) comes from the word pustaka. According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, Reader means books, books, in English known as Library,this term comes from the word librer or libri, which means book. From the Latin word formed the term libraries, about books. In other foreign languages the library is called bibliotecha (Dutch) which also comes from the Greek biblia which means about books, books. Thus, the term library is a limitation of a room, a part of a building, or the building itself that is used to store books and other publications that are normally stored according to a specific arrangement for reader use, not for sale. According to Law No. 43 of 2007 about Library,the Library is an institution that manages the collection of written works, print works, and/or recorded works in a professional manner with a standardized system to meet the educational, research, preservation, information and recreational needs of users.
Library is a system consisting of various elements which are closely related to one another. In
"The work units that have human resources, special rooms and library collections comprise at least 1000 titles from various disciplines in accordance with the type of library concerned and are managed according to a particular system".
The library is a work unit that cannot stand alone of course, but can be part of a larger organization above it. Independent libraries such as public libraries, library technical implementation units at universities, and national libraries. While that is part of an organization is usually a special library that joins an institution whose parent, and a school library that is under the auspices of the educational institution. Here are some basic needs of the library as a work unit, namely:
1). Building and room. Building and adequate space and sufficient to accommodate collections, readers, services, library material processing activities and administrative activities. A stand-alone library usually has a building of its own, specifically designed for libraries, equipped with various facilities, infrastructure, furniture, and equipment needed, as well as standard requirements for libraries;
2). Collection of library materials. Library material collection is a number of library materials that are already in the library and have been processed, so they are ready to be lent or used by users. If the minimum standard of collection has been determined, of course, the next is how the development. Because the library is better known as a center for information, education, research, and development of science;
3). Equipment and furniture. Equipment and furniture must be owned by the library, at least shelves, reading tables, and chairs for employees, library materials storage cabinets, catalog cabinets (for libraries that still use manual catalogs), so that their tasks and functions can run. All library furniture and equipment must be managed properly including planning procurement, storage, distribution, use, and maintenance. All of that is a system that runs systematically and mechanically, in order to avoid mismanagement;
4). Budget Financing. This is a means to guarantee the availability of income and expenditure budgets every year. The financing budget is a source of funding and library development. The bigger the budget, the more it makes libraries free to manage it in order to advance the library;
5). Labor. Manpower is the executor of activities in the library. This workforce includes the head of the library, librarian functional officers, library technical personnel, and administrative staff. All workers must meet the requirements and qualifications, because the library is one job that is professional-functional. In addition to fulfilling these requirements, the library also complies with applicable laws and regulations on staffing. All workforce is an organizational component that also determines library development.
Library Tends Amid Developments of Information Technology
The development of information technology is always fast and reaching the library field too. According to natural law humans must help each other and develop in accordance with the changing times. In the future library, it will always experience changes, especially those related to information technology and the intensity of information development. In addition, it is also not free from challenges, for example the limitations of professional human resources and competition among other information management institutions. The process of information development will be faster, in line with the pace of development of information technology. If the past library collection was colored with a collection of palm leaves and clay tablets, now the most dominant form of printed collections, and some libraries are already in micro and digital form.
Based on the old paradigm, especially in Indonesia the library is often interpreted as a building or room where books are stored. Library buildings in general use old buildings, dark, stuffy, quiet and even seem haunted. The users are generally parents and are served by employees who are not professional, less passionate, and not friendly to library users. Therefore, working in the library is not encouraging, feeling inferior and being wasted. The library often happens as a place for people who are not qualified. Many people work in the library, but do not feel like being a librarian, because being a librarian is not an option, it is only the "fate" factor that leads them to work in the library. That all causes a bad image of the librarian profession. Sulistiyo Basuki (1991) gives an overview of the function of libraries in people's lives as follows:
1). Storage Function of Publishing Production, which is the function of libraries to store community works. The form of the work saved is related to books, magazines, newspapers or other recorded information. The library functions as a reservoir of general information for public products in the broadest sense;
2). Information function, which is a library function that provides information that is managed by the library to users. In this function, people who need information can ask or ask the library. Information managed in the form of information about daily tasks, lessons or other information;
3). Educational Function, namely the function of libraries that support the learning system announced by the government. The library is a means of non-formal and informal education. This means that the library is a place of learning outside of school and also a place of learning in the school education environment. In this case, relating to non-formal education is a public library, while those relating to non-formal education are the library of schools and colleges;
4). Recreation Function, which is the function of the library as a place for recreation by the library by providing good facilities and entertaining reading;
5). Cultural Function, namely the function of the library as a means in order to develop various cultures as outlined in a work.
The library is an organism that grows and develops, in Ranganathan's law which is exactly the fifth law "The library is a growing organism". Can be interpreted that the library is a growing organism. Besides the library is something that is lively, dynamic, fresh offering new things, innovative service products, and packaged in such a way that anything offered by the library will be attractive, interactive, educative and creative for the user. Service products are published in various ways, both through print and electronic media to the public.
The library is managed professionally. Employees look neat, friendly, so they can provide pleasant services to the library user community. The building or room is neatly arranged, cool and comfortable, following the times. In addition to conventional collections in the form of printed works and recorded works, some libraries also have collections in digital form. Some libraries have introduced technology-based information services, such as the provision of internet services. Paradigm changes occur in the world of libraries and information. The source of information used to be in the form of a medium, now in the form of digital and multimedia. Services that assume the library acts as a warehouse are now like markets. Librarians previously only waited for users, now it actually promotes and empowers users.
Changes in the paradigm of information workers demand changes in serving users. Users must be well recognized, their treatment must vary. The user (user) is a general term used, but there are those who are grouped as members, readers, patrons, customers, or as clients. Thus, services to each of them must be tailored to the needs and criteria of each. In essence, the library must make the satisfaction of users as a service target. Because of that, what must be called excellent service and adapted to the demands of the new paradigm, the adoption of modern management in library management becomes a necessity.
Development demands changes in the mindset of the community to be able to adapt well to the existing situations and conditions. Likewise with libraries trends that are required to be able to follow the development of science and technology. Are as follows:
1). Storage of Publishing Works, namely the function of libraries as a place to store a work of science, technology, art or culture which then presents the work as information that can be accessed by users. As written in Law No. 43 of 2007 concerning the Library that library collections are selected, served, stored, and developed in accordance with the interests of users;
2). Information Source Center, which is the function of the library to explore and manage information that can be used by users to produce new work that can be accessed by other users. As stated in Law No. 43 of 2007 about library that library collections are selected, served, stored and developed in accordance with the interests of users by observing the development of information and communication technology. In this case, there are two messages for librarians to develop an information retrieval system and at the same time be responsive to the latest information;
3). The Center for Community Learning and Research, the function of the library as a place of learning and research for the community is to become an intelligent and knowledgeable community. Article 2 of Law No. 43 of 2007 about Library,mentions that the library is organized based on the principle of lifelong learning. In another verse it is explained that the library aims to provide services to users and broaden their horizons and knowledge to educate the nation's life.
4). Recreation, namely the function of the library as a place that is comfortable and presents information that is fun, as well as a place that produces new work that is based on the work of others that have been published.
5). Developing Culture, namely the function of libraries as a place to develop culture through the information presented, as well as instilling value to the community through various activities, such as documentary film loading, learning to dance, learning languages, storytelling and others. In relation to values, service attitudes are also developed by increasing librarians to understand the character of users. There is no denying that the library trend of this service shows the bank's service, which is a place of service for the customer satisfaction-oriented problems. Customer satisfaction is highly expected so that users feel helped by all the information needs sought.
Lately, we often hear the term era 4.0 or the complete era of the industrial revolution 4.0. What is meant by the era of the industrial revolution 4.0?.To find out, we will begin by discussing the history of the industrial revolution a little. Simply put, the notion of the industrial revolution is a radical and major change in the way humans produce goods. This major change was recorded three times, the first of which occurred in the 1750s and was known as the 1.0 industrial revolutions. The second occurred at the beginning of the 20th century as we are familiar with the 2.0 industrial revolutions. The third occurred in the 1970s when automation was carried out and we are familiar with the industrial revolution 3.0, while now we are experiencing the fourth industrial revolution that is underway and we are familiar with the industrial revolution 4.0.
Every major change is always followed by other major changes, especially in the economic, political, even military and cultural fields. Surely there are many old jobs that have disappeared, and a lot of new jobs have appeared in their place. In general, in every industrial revolution, there are many things that were so difficult, so long, so expensive that the production process suddenly became easy, fast, and inexpensive. The industrial revolution lowers, sometimes even eliminates some scarcity, so time, energy, and costs are originally used to overcome these scarcities suddenly become excess because they are no longer used. Time, energy and costs are then used for other things and to overcome other scarcity. The loss or reduction of a scarcity automatically changes many aspects of social life. Especially if it turns out some rarity disappeared.
The discovery of the internet in the era of the industrial revolution 3.0 became the basis for opening the gates of the Industrial Revolution 4.0. One of them is the use of the Internet of Thing. Internet of Thing's ambition is to interconnect all available devices with the internet. At this time, for example, with gadgets, we can find out the weather conditions in a place because the gadgets are connected with temperature gauges at that place, we can also find out the condition of the density of the highway because the gadgets are connected with cameras on the highway that we are monitoring its density, or we can know whether there is an accident on the road or not because our gadget is connected to the camera on the road where the accident occurred, and so on.
The Industrial Revolution 4.0 applies the concept of automation carried out by machines without the need for manpower in its application, which is a vital thing needed by industry players for the sake of time, labor and cost efficiency. The application of the Industrial Revolution 4.0 in factories today is also known as Smart Factory. Innovations continue to develop into 2019-2020 starting from the role of robots in the industry, Artificial Intelligence, Drone Operation Centers, Self-Powered Data Centers, to the development plan of Virtual Workers. In the Industrial Revolution 4.0 there were many new innovations, including the Internet of Things, Big Data, 3D printing, artificial intelligence, driverless vehicles, genetic engineering, robots and smart machines. One of the biggest things in the Industrial Revolution 4.0 is the invention of the Internet of Things. As a revolution, the industrial revolution 4.0 has a profound impact on the world's ecosystems and human way of life. So, in industry 4.0 the use of computers and robots is the most basic thing.
There are four developments in information technology in the development of industry 4.0, namely: 1). Cyber-physical system is one aspect in the development of the industrial revolution 4.0. This system allows the connection of several physical devices through the internet network. With this system allows the control and response via the internet to physical machines through sensors. In other words, the Cyber-physical system is the connectivity of physical devices to obtain and process data.
2). Internet of Things, is a concept that aims to expand the benefits of continuously connected internet connectivity and capabilities such as data sharing, remote control, and so on, as well as objects in the real world. For example electronic devices, collections, equipment, even living things that are connected to local and global networks through embedded sensors and always active. So basically, the Internet of Thing is a concept in which an object that has the ability to transfer data through a network without requiring human-to-human or human-computer interaction.
3). Cloud computing is a combination of the use of computer technology and internet-based development. Cloud is a symbol of the existence of the internet. Cloud in Cloud Computing is also an abstraction of a hidden complex infrastructure. Cloud Computing is a computational method in which capabilities related to information technology are presented as a service, so that users can access them through the internet without knowing what's inside, without becoming an expert with it or have control over the technological infrastructure that helps it. Cloud computing system-based computer technology is a technology that makes the internet a central server for managing data and user applications. This technology allows users to run programs without installation and allows users to access their personal data through computers with internet access.
4). Cognitive Computing. Cognitive computingis a simulation of human thought processes into computerized forms and models. Cognitive computing involves self-learning in a system that uses data mining, pattern recognition and processing programming languages to mimic the way the human brain works in a system. The purpose of cognitive computing is to create information technology systems that are automatically able to solve problems without the need for human assistance. Cognitive computing is used in a variety of artificial intelligence systems and applications including expert systems, programming languages, artificial neural networks, robotics and virtual reality.
Internet of Things which is one of the characteristics of the industrial revolution 4.0 has created an ecosystem of Volatility, or circumstances that are rapidly changing, Uncertainty or uncertainty of a situation, Complexity or complexity of a situation, and Ambiguity or ambiguity. As we know that the Volatility ecosystem has led to disruptive innovation in all lines and joints of life and has an impact on global education patterns. The education system in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0 no longer rests on the delivery of knowledge, but rather emphasizes personalized learning, learning flexibility, interconnective thinking patterns, so students are trained to become independent learners, equipped with various abilities, and learners' minds that are agile and resilient.
With the change in the learning system, this will impact on library services. Libraries should no longer only provide literature to provide information for students to support the process of delivering knowledge from lecturers, but libraries must adapt to the system of personalized learning, learning flexibility, and the interconnective thinking patterns. In addition to providing a comfortable learning space library for the convenience of the student learning process (library as a space), but also must be a place to consult for students, especially in terms of information. In many developed countries, librarians can become co-teaching partners in guiding the writing of the final project. The librarian is a place to consult with regard to writing scientific papers.
So it is very clear that industry 4.0 will have an impact on many professions and fields of life. Many old professions are threatened with disappearance. But many new professions will emerge. Or in other words, many old jobs will no longer exist because they have been replaced by computer-based robots. Meanwhile, there are new jobs that need to be raised. One job that will not be affected by industrial technology 4.0 is work that is personal and requires thought. For example, financial consultants, legal consultants, and others. Then the impact of industry 4.0 on the library will be explained below.
In the era of the industrial revolution, librarians and library technical staff only managed information technology based libraries. Management of the old model has been abandoned because it is not in accordance with the development of information technology and the needs of the current generation of millennials. Cataloging and classification work that should be done by librarians, no longer needs to be done because the data is already available electronically.But not all libraries need to do it. This depends on the progress and mission of the library concerned.
In the era of the industrial revolution, library and technical staff staff only managed information technology based libraries. Management of the old model has been abandoned because it is not in accordance with the development of information technology and the needs of the current generation of millennials. But not all libraries need to do it. This depends The work completes the identity of library materials after cataloging in conventional libraries, namely attaching barcodes for those who already use the barcode system, or RFID for libraries that already use them. In addition to that the book needs to be installed back date slips. Book cards need to be made for libraries that have not used an automated system. Most libraries already use automated systems. Thus making the book card is no longer needed. All of these attributes must be affixed to parts of the book such as the book's cover or certain parts which are kept secret. All library attachments work need not be done by librarians, but only the technical staff library. On the progress and mission of the library concerned.
Library services to users are services the provision of all forms of library materials appropriately and accurately according to the needs of users; providing various means of information retrieval. Conventional library services that we know so far have two major groups namely circulation services and reference services. Circulation service is a service activity that takes care of borrowing and returning library materials, registering library members, collecting loans and imposing sanctions on users who break the rules, compiling collections on the shelf, and recording library statistics. If the service is already automated, then the librarian is no longer needed. For example, all data both books and members are already in the database, lending transactions have been carried out by the user, self-service, repayments are also done alone using the book drop box, and all records are automatically recorded by the computer.
In preparation for the management and service of libraries in the industrial age 4.0 can take place well and sustainably, it requires several conditions as follows: the ability and mastery of information and communication technology. This capability will certainly support the work of librarians and library technical staff who increasingly need information and communication technology. Even very basic library work now requires information and communication technology competencies. Including repository management, guidance on the use of various applications, the use of electronic books and journals and others;
Ability to conduct research. In this case the ability and mastery of research methodology is very necessary, especially to support the work of librarians who deal with information analysis. For example, librarians must be able to examine trends in research direction by researchers or students. Mapping the fields of science that are the objects of research by researchers, students, and lecturers. This ability is very necessary when librarians do Collaborative Partnership with lecturers and / or professors. Manylibrarians participated in research together with senior lecturers and professors. Even many librarians become resource persons when professors will publish their scientific publications.
There is also a lot of experience of librarians who help professors in teaching or co-teaching, especially related to research methodology, by providing information literacy material to students; Excellent communication skills. Excellent communication skills, both oral communications and written communications must be possessed by librarians, especially when they have to submit research information to the public;
Teaching ability. Librarians must be equipped with teaching skills, especially in delivering guidance and also in carrying out information literacy to users; Writing ability. This capability is very necessary in conveying the results of their studies, especially those related to the information needs of users or the public; Ability to package information. Library products and services such as abstracts, indexes, literature reviews, pathfinders, literature guides and other secondary information;
Ability to draw up a strategic plan. This means that librarians must be able to draw up a library's strategic plan in preparing services to be provided to their stakeholders. Each of these stakeholder groups certainly has different information needs and must be met by librarians in the university library; Ability to manage information. Managing information as knowledge and making optimal use of it to produce quality and up-to-date scientific publications; The ability to study the librarian system. The activity can be interpreted as the librarian as a quality controller in library operations, helping the library head in monitoring and evaluating library management, so that the library can continuously improve to meet the needs of library users.
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