Management and Process
Preservation of Library Materials
Hendrikus Franz Josef, M.Si
Regional Library and Archive Office of
Maintenance of library materials is needed to support the function of the library in carrying out library services by making the condition of library materials maintained as well as possible and ready to use. In general, the media used in library materials are paper, both in the form of books, newspapers, manuscripts, maps, drawings, documents and other printed materials, in addition to that there is also a library that has a collection of photos and photo negatives. With the development of science and technology, for libraries that have advanced already complete the collection with micro form (microfilm and micro fish), sound recordings, films, electronic data storage, CD-ROM and others. All collections will surely suffer damage. Various properties of library materials and their historical backgrounds, factors that cause damage to library materials and how to overcome them, conservation efforts and preservation of library collections, digital library preservation, fumigation, deasidification, lamination and ecapulation, binding, and maps, slides, photocopies and inks, preservation of the value of information, efforts to preserve library materials in schools, efforts to preserve library materials in archival bodies, preservation of library materials in various countries, organizations, research institutes and educational technicians or conservation professionals. Knowing the picture of the process of preservation of rare library materials and the obstacles encountered in the preservation of rare library materials through the process of reproducing library materials. Sub. The Reproduction field preserves rare library materials by means of reproducing preservation priority namely a collection of rare books, magazines, manuscripts, and maps.
The library as an information center is tasked with gathering, processing and presenting library materials to be used effectively and efficiently by users. So that library materials possessed by the library can be used in a relatively long period of time. It needs a treatment so that library materials avoid damage, or at least slow down the damage process, and maintain the information content which we often refer to as preservation of library materials. In this paper we will explain the meaning, purpose and purpose, function, and elements of preservation of library materials.
Library material is all information in the form of written works, printed works, and/or recorded works in various media that have educational value, which are collected, processed, and served. Library material is an important component in the library. Collection of library materials is also a very valuable asset in the library. The existence of library materials in the library determines the quality of the library. Therefore, library materials must be maintained and preserved so that library materials can continue to be used properly. Preservation of library materials does not only concern the physical aspect, but the preservation of library materials also involves the content of information contained therein. To keep library materials from being damaged in terms of both physical and content, libraries need to preserve or maintain library materials.
Basically, preservation or preservation is a planned and managed activity to ensure that the collection of library materials can continue to be used as long as possible. Preservation is an effort so that all printed and non-printed collection materials in a library can last a long time and are not easily damaged. The purpose of preservation is to physically save the document,
save the value of the information contained in the document, and overcome the constraints of lack of space and accelerate the acquisition of information.
The Stages andProcesses of Preservation
The term preservation is a translation of preservation which comes from English. Presentation is the activity of visually and chemically reducing damage and preventing the loss of information content and the purpose of this preservation is to extend the life of library materials. Preservation consists of four components, 1). Preventive Conservation is an action in optimizing environmental conditions for training, raising awareness, recruiting professional staff; 2). Passive conservation is an activity to extend the life of a collection, which includes monitoring cleanliness, clean air, and the use of air conditioners, including conducting surveys to determine the physical condition of the collection and the condition of the collection storage environment; 3). Active conservation is an action directly related to the collection, which includes making protective boxes, repacking collections, re-binding by replacing protective sheets (paper back) with acid-free paper, cleaning the collection, removing acid (deacidification) and others; 4). Conservation of restoration is an action to extend the collection by improving the collection's appearance so that it approaches its original state in accordance with the rules and ethics of conservation.
In the library, archive and museum environment there is no agreement in interpreting the term preservation. This difference can be seen in several books that discuss various definitions of preservation or preservation. In The Principles for the Preservation and Conservation of Library Materials compiled by J.M. Dureau and D.W.G. Clements, preservation has a broader meaning, which includes elements of financial management, ways of storage, personnel, techniques and methods for preserving information and the physical form of library materials. While another definition according to the Introduction to Conservation, a 1979 UNESCO publication mentioned that the term preservation means handling that is directly related to objects, damage
due to moist air, chemical factors, attacks from microorganisms that must be stopped to prevent further damage.
According to Hazen, the term preservation covers 3 types of activities, namely: 1). Activities aimed at controlling the library environment in order to meet the requirements for preservation of library materials stored in it; 2). Various activities related to efforts to extend the life of library materials, for example by means of deacidification, restoration, or re-binding; and 3). All activities related to the effort to transfer the contents of information from one format or matrix to another. Each activity according to that category can of course still be developed into various other activities that are more specific and detailed.
Some terms related to preservation according to the International Federation of Library Associations, namely: 1). Preservation, defines preservation as an aspect that includes efforts to preserve library materials, finance, personnel, methods, techniques, and storage. Based on the English-Indonesian dictionary (John M.Echols & Hassan Sadily), preservation means maintenance, preservation and preservation. Whereas in the book Principles for the Preservation and Conservation of Library Materials compiled by J.M. Dureau & D.W.G. Clements, preservation has a broader meaning, which includes elements of management, finance, storage methods, personnel, techniques and methods for preserving information and the physical form of library materials; 2). Conservation, there is wisdom and special ways to protect library materials and archives for the preservation of library material collections. In the English-Indonesian dictionary compiled by John M. Echols and Hassan Sadily, conservation means protection and preservation. Meanwhile, according to J.M. Dureau & D.W.G. Conservation Clement are techniques used to protect library materials from damage and destruction.
The American Heritage Dictionary defines preservation as an effort to protect from all kinds of damage, risks and other dangers, keeping it intact and preparing something to protect it from destruction. While the definition of preservation of library materials proposed by the International of Federation Library Association and established as a preservation guide by the National Library of Indonesia, covers three aspects, namely: 1). All aspects of efforts to preserve materials, ways of management, finance, human resources, methods and techniques of storing library materials; 2). All policies and activities related to preservation or conservation, which are special ways to protect library materials for the sake of preservation of library materials; and 3). All steps to consider and carry out restoration, which is the method used to repair damaged library materials
Preservation of library materials is also by transferring its form, from one form of media to another for other present and future needs. Even if it is not possible to do so, it must be tried in various ways so that the material can still be utilized optimally. Although there are various differences in defining the term preservation, we can draw conclusions from the overall definition, which is basically the core of library material preservation, which is to preserve the original physical and information content of a library. Physical preservation is usually done in order to save space, and also to save the original physical documents from frequent high usage by users by transferring their form. While the preservation of information content is usually done for library materials that have special values, such as historical value, beauty value, economic value, and also because of its scarce nature.
Preservation of library materials is one of the important things for the existence of libraries in addition to procurement, processing, and services provided by the library. The existence of library materials that should be preserved is one important element in a library system besides the room or building, equipment and furniture, energy and budget. These elements are interrelated and support one another for the implementation of advanced library services. While conservation is a technique used to protect the library
and archival materials from damage and destruction. Besides that conservation has other broader meanings. Conservation in the library is a systematic program planning that can be developed to handle library collections to keep them in good condition and ready to use.
The principle of the level of conservation activities, namely: prevention of deterioration, preservation, consolidation, restoration, and reproduction, each of which can be explained in detail as follows: 1). Prevention of deterioration, namely preventive measures to protect cultural objects including library materials by controlling environmental conditions, protecting against other damaging factors including mishandling; 2). Preservation, namely handling that is directly related to the object. Damage due to moist air, chemical factors, insects and microorganisms must be stopped to prevent further damage; 3). Consolidation, which is to strengthen objects that are already fragile by giving adhesive or other reinforcing material; 4. Restoration, i.e. repair damaged collections by patching, connecting, repairing damaged bindings and replacing missing parts so that their shapes are close to their original state; 5). Reproduction ”that is making doubles from the original objects, including making microfilms, macrophile, photo repro and photocopying. From the description above, we can conclude that the words preservation and conservation are actually still ambiguous. However, we just assume these two words have the same meaning, namely preservation, which in turn includes preservation activities of maintenance, care, preservation, repair and reproduction.
Library material maintenance activities have several functions, including: 1). Protection function, an effort to protect library materials from several factors that cause damage; 2). Preservation function, Preservation efforts of library materials so that they do not break easily and can be utilized for much longer; 3). Health function, Efforts to keep library materials in a clean condition so that they do not smell stuffy and do not interfere with the health of readers or librarians: 4). Educational function, Efforts to provide education to readers, how to utilize library materials that are good and right; 5). The function of patience. Efforts to preserve library materials require patience and accuracy; 6). Social function. Maintenance of library materials requires the involvement of others; 7). Economic function, good maintenance will have an impact on the durability of library materials, which ultimately can minimize the cost of procurement of library materials; and 8). The function of beauty, With good care, library materials in the library will be neatly arranged and in beautiful position.
Various destroyers of library materials for the tropics, especially those known in Indonesia, namely: Insect, rodent, mushroom, humidity, dust, earthquake, drought, tsunami and hurricane. Library Material Damage can be caused in general by: 1. Biological factors, for example: insects (termites, cockroaches, nerds), rodents, fungi; 2. Physical factors, for example: light, air/dust, temperature and humidity; 3. Chemical factors, for example: chemicals, acidity, oxidation; and 4. Other factors for example: Natural disasters (floods, earthquakes) and war.
Forms of preservation of library materials, namely: 1). Fumigation, is one way to preserve library materials by smoking smoke library materials so that fungi do not grow, animals die, and destroyers of other library materials are killed; 2). Deacidification is the preservation of library materials by stopping the acidity process contained in the paper; 3). Lamination, which means coating the library material with special paper, so that the library material becomes durable; 4). Encapsulation, is one way to protect paper from physical damage, for example brittle due to age, the influence of acid, because of being eaten by insects, storage errors and the like; 5). Binding, is the work of gathering or combining loose sheets into one, which is protected by a protective cover.
The purpose of preservation is to make sure that library materials do not get damaged quickly. Other than that preservation can also extend the life of a library material. For example, in expensive library materials, efforts are made to keep the library materials durable, so that they can be used longer and can reach more users who need the books or library materials. The
preservation is intended to be able to bring back the attraction of library materials, so people who were previously reluctant to be interested and often even always use library services.
So, in brief the main purpose of preservation of library materials is to: 1).Savee the value of information of a document; 2).Savee physically from a document; 3).Overcomingg constraints of lack of space; 4).Acceleratee the acquisition of information, documents stored on a CD (Compact disc), very easy to access, both from a short distance and from a distance. Sothe use of documents becomes more optimal. With good preservation, library materials are expected to last longer, so that libraries do not need to buy the same material, which can burden ordering, reprocessing, pasting cards, all of which require money to work on. With library materials that are sustainable and well-maintained, librarians can get pride and increase performance.
The function of preservation is to keep the library collection from being disturbed by ignorant hands, destructive insects, or rampant fungus on books placed in humid spaces. If concluded, preservation has the following functions:
1). Protect function: library materials are protected from insects, humans, fungi, solar heat, water, and so on. With good preservation of insects and small animals will not be able to touch the document. Humans will not be wrong in handling and using library materials. The fungus will not have time to grow, and sunlight and humidity in the library will be easily controlled;
2). Preservation Function: with serious care, library materials become durable, can be used longer, and hopefully more readers can use these library materials;
3). Health Function: with good preservation, library materials become clean, free from dust, mold, destructive animals, sources and nests from various diseases, so that users and librarians stay healthy. Readers are more passionate about reading and using the library;
4. Educational functions: library users and librarians themselves must learn how to use and maintain documents. They must maintain discipline, not bring food and drinks into the library, do not pollute library materials or library rooms. Educate users and librarians themselves to be highly disciplined and respectful of cleanliness;
5. Patience Function: caring for library materials is like caring for a baby or parent, so you must be patient. How can we patch a hole in a book, clean the poop of small animals; Removing stains from library materials requires a high level of patience;
6. Social Function: preservation cannot be done alone. Librarians must include library readers to treat the library and library materials. A high sense of sacrifice must be given by everyone, for the sake and importance of library materials;
7. Economic function: with good preservation, library materials become more durable. Finance also saves. Many other economic aspects relate to the preservation of library materials; and
8. Beauty Function: with good preservation, neat arrangement of library materials, the library seems to be more beautiful, thus increasing the appeal to the user.
Various important elements that need to be considered in preserving library materials are:
1. Management, it should be noted who is responsible for this work. How is the preservation procedure being followed. Library materials to be repaired must be recorded properly, which are the damages, what are the tools and chemicals needed and so on;
2. Human resources which have the expertise of preservation. Those who teach this preservation should be those who already have knowledge or expertise/skills in this field. At least they have already participated in upgrading in the field of document preservation;
3. Laboratory, a preservation room with various necessary equipment, such as binding equipment, glue, lamination equipment, tools for fumigation, various brushes for cleaning "Vacuum cleaner" dust and so
on. Every library should have a laboratory room as a "workshop" or warehouse for library materials that need to be maintained or repaired;
4. Preservation Funds, preservation work will not be disrupted. This funding certainly depends on the institution where the library is sheltered. If it is not possible to hold the preservation section yourself, it is recommended that collaboration be held with other libraries. This can save a lot of money.
How to prevent damage to library materials caused by insects and fungi can be prevented by keeping library materials from standing water and also maintaining room air humidity must be maintained. Likewise damage to library materials caused by flooding can be done by cleaning library materials from dirt and holding drying and not drying under the sun's rays and patience is the main capital in efforts to take these precautions.
Another way to eradicate insects and fungi can be about injections that are preventive so that insects, especially termites, do not attack library materials and library facilities such as bookshelves, tables and others. In eradicating insects and fungi, this can also be prevented by spraying and fumigation. Because in this spraying library material is not attacked by fungi and insects, the room in the library must be sterilized first by spraying a solution to eradicate the insects and fungi on the corner of the room and bookshelves. Likewise, with fumigation, this is a way of fumigating toxic gases in library materials to eradicate fungi and insects. The material used is fumigant, which consists of: methyl bromide, carbon disulfide, formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide, phosphine, thymol crystal and formalin are materials to eradicate fungi and other insect repellent.
How to prevent that is caused by rats is that we must carry out regular checks on buildings, rooms or library storage materials. If there are leftovers, the food must be discarded quickly because it can invite mice. If you need a rat catcher or rat poison. The way to prevent caused by dust is the most appropriate use of air conditioned in library room, or it could be by cleaning with a wet cloth and also with a dry cloth. In addition, health and safety of library materials are also for the convenience of employees and users.
How to prevent caused by human activity is to inform the user about how to use these library materials. And give sanctions to users found ripping out books and also stealing library materials. Likewise, a librarian who takes care of library materials must have a love for the library materials and how to preserve library materials.
After we know the various types of library material destroyers and the types of damage they cause, then we must be able to repair them. Works to improve library materials include:
1). Paper Patching. Nerdy larvae often make holes in books, from the front page to the back. Cockroaches also often eat paper, so that the paper becomes hollow or torn. Damage can also occur in library materials that are often used because they are often used, library materials become thin in the folds, the damage can be repaired by patching it. Then the patching of paper that is torn lengthwise can be done in two ways, namely: a). Patching with Japanese paper (a type of paper for laminated paper); b). Patching with tissue paper (heat tissue paper) patching with Japanese paper is done if there is a torn book page either torn straight or not straight. This patch can be done if the tear is only 3 cm long, with damage above 10 cm, the damage must be repaired immediately, otherwise it will spread and cause half of the page to be lost, and the use of a wet cutting system that is cutting the Japanese paper with a dampened tool such as a brush little wet edges. The brush wet bases will make it easier for Japanese paper to be torn by hand in this way, on the edges of the paper to patch there will be paper fibers so that the time pasted will be able to stick perfectly.
2). Whiten paper. Paper that is exposed to dust or mud will be brownish can be bleached by using various chemicals such as: chloramide T, How to use this solution is dissolved in water, the paper to be bleached is placed on absorbent paper and then smeared with runners on it; gaschlordioxide, the paper to be bleached is first dipped in the solution that has been provided for a minute, then removed. The lifting of this paper must be assisted by a glass stand, and we must be careful not to tear it; Sodiumchloridera, the way to make it is to take 20 grams of NaCl and put it into 3 liters of water in a basin or the like, plus 75 ml of 40% formaldehyde. Soak the paper or newspaper that will be bleached until the stain disappears then the paper or sheet with the help of glass is put into clean water so that the bleaching agent disappears to our liking; Potasiumpermanganate, this material used is KmnO 0.5-5% dissolved into sheets that will be bleached soaked for five minutes then put into a second bath or frying pan which we have filled with water or 5% sodium thiosside solution to remove stains on the paper; sodium hypochlorite, this solution reacts very slowly, because it is good for paper but we must pay attention to the PH which is 11; hydrogen peroxide, this material reacts very quickly once and is usually stored in a concentration of 30% in a bottle/in a closed can. This bleaching paper is more than just removing blemishes on paper rather than whitening sheets of books that have been written both in print and handwriting, but if it is deemed necessary, all pages of a book can also be bleached; in order to replace a torn page, a torn page can no longer be repaired by missing a patch, or it has been lost, must be replaced by making a copy of the copy. By inserting and gluing with glue carefully on the part that is lost due to attachment to the bound book, there is a possibility of excess or small occurrence in the page; Lamination and encapsulation, in order to extend the life of library materials, it is necessary to layering or laminating, especially library materials which are rotted or torn so that they appear strong or intact again. There are 2 ways to laminate: laminate by machine and by the manual. Another way besides lamination is encapsulation. Encapsulation is one way of protecting paper from physical damage, for example brittle due to age. What must be considered in the implementation of encapsulation is the paper must be clean, dry and free of acid. Library materials that are already fragile and can no longer be bound we can make a book box; binding, the structure of the book consists of: facet, foredge, paper, book body, binding board, bond arises, groove, band of capital and so on. So that the structure of the books cannot be separated from one another, binding is necessary. For books that have been damaged, re-binding needs to be done immediately, so that the value of the information contained therein is not lost, so that books that have been repaired by re-binding can be reused by library users.
The purpose and function of this binding is to preserve library materials so that they remain intact and avoid further damage. In holding this library material binding there are several factors including:
1) Frequency of library materials that are often done;
2). Damage to library materials has not been too severe and the paper to
be bound has not been severely damaged;
3) Library material which has information content is very high value.
As for the equipment used in holding bindery, namely: knives, hammers, drill holes, scissors. cutter, folding bone, iron ruler, brush, saw, needle, thread, press, sewing machine, cutting machine and so on. while the binding material includes: paper, kessing paper, samson kessing paper, marble paper, linen, adhesives, yarn, sewing wire, cardboard, and board.
Before binding, books need to be well prepared. Mistakes or lack of preparation can be fatal and disappointing. It is also a waste if it has to be re-bound. Preparation of binding involves two things, collecting papers or library materials and combining them. Gathering must be done carefully, don't misread page numbers. For magazines, don't sort the publishing number wrong. Short-length and width of the paper must be equalized. Trim the left side so that cutting and trimming can be done for the other three sides. Binding instructions must be included, so that the results match what we want. In conducting the merger, we must see what kind of binding is desired according to the binding instructions slip. Likewise, if the newspapers we bind must be sorted first, starting from the year of publication, month and date.
The purpose of preservation of library materials is actually to ensure information stored in digital media can still be accessed by anyone who needs it both now and in the future. Therefore, when going to do preservation, it should also have thought about the preservation of documents that will be done. In addition to humans and animals, dust, mold, chemicals and the universe can also damage library materials.
So that library materials are not damaged quickly, every librarian must know how to care for library materials. Factors that cause damage to library materials can vary by humans, by rats, by insects and others. The use of a feeding system, book poisoning, pouring poison solution into termite pits, applying a plastic coating to the floor and placing camphor on a shelf is a way to prevent damage to library materials. Library materials that are already fragile that cannot be bound anymore are made into book boxes. And how to repair books there are several kinds such as binding, patching paper, whitening paper and others.
After knowing all about library materials, readers are expected to know the causes of library material damage, and how to repair library materials. So hopefully after reading this paper the reader really understands how important it is to preserve library materials so that they are always cared for and preserved so that library materials remain useful and useful. Because library material is a repository of science and technology in the past, present and future.
Axelrod, Herbert R, Method for Binding Books,
Conway, Paul, Preservation in the Digital World, Council on Library and Information Resources, 1996;
Dureau, Jeanne-Marie, and David WG Clements, Principles for the Preservation and Conservation of Library Materials, IFLA Professional Reports, No. 8.,1986; .
Jones, Maggie, and Neil Beagrie, Preservation Management of Digital Materials: a Handbook,
Osako, Tatsuo, and Takaaki Osako, Book-Binding Method for Saddle-Stitched Bound
Perpustakaan Nasional, Petunjuk Teknis Pengelolaan Karya Cetak dan Karya Rekam Film Cerita atau Film Dokumenter:Hasil Pelaksanaan UU No. 4 Th. 1990, Perpustakaan Nasional RI, Jakarta, 2012.
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