Repository Library As
Scientific Special Publishing Copy Right
Hendrikus Franz Josef, M.Si
Regional Library and Archive Office of Yogyakarta Special Region
Library Repositories are very important to be managed and developed for specialized libraries. Repository library which should be a valuable asset for the institution of its owner, is not only a supplementary material collected by the library. Behind it all, it turns out that the Repository Library has become an important level of need for library users. This paper will examine the management of the Repository Library, which also looks at advancing open access programs in libraries, specifically for the Repository Library collection. In addition, the Repository Library is now a mainstay for various universities to raise the image of universities in terms of developing science and technology. The approach is on the ease of library users in accessing this collection. Therefore, the idea of Open Access began to be raised to open the width of information that can be accessed by library users. This paper will explain the flow of Repository Library management activities. Every institution in Indonesia may build and develop a repository system, but the most important thing is to work together to integrate digital information access between institutions and improve the quality of national scientific publications. Repositories contribute to increasing institutional webometry repositories in national and international indexing databases. In the future, all special libraries of tertiary institutions should develop and develop an integrated national scientific repository system. This is the basis for determining national science and technology policies, including: (1) leading research priorities; (2) maping the results of scientific publications; (3) collaboration system between researchers/institutions; (4) database library interoperability repository; (5) targets of national scientific publications; and 6) dissemination of scientific information to the public. The purpose of building a repository is to: (1) store and preserve intellectual assets (preservation); (2) providing open access to the institution's intellectual work to the public; (3) increasing the accessibility of local content of institutions in the global index; and (4) facilitate information retrieval in one integrated system. The repository functions as a system of managing intellectual assets to support and guarantee the implementation of research based on freedom, truth and integrity.
The acceleration of changes in information technology globally has an effect on the existence of libraries as information dissemination systems. The acceleration of information occurs because of the flow of digital information through the internet media. Digital technology can receive all information from images, numbers, sound, text, audio and video. These developments affect human needs, namely the demand for information easily and quickly. In the digital world, connectivity has a broader meaning than just allowing two or more people to interact. To meet the needs of network connectivity, space is created so that everyone can share information, collaborate and interact. This technology is known as the Internet. Some supporting factors for the acceleration of information systems are due to several reasons, namely:
The availability of communication technology that enables the creation, collection and manipulation of information. International network infrastructure to support connection and operability for users. Online information is starting to develop. A general internet access framework has emerged. The library develops according to the cultural conditions of the people The shift from conventional library forms to digital online is a necessity for information needs that are moving fast. In the history of the development of libraries in Indonesia, higher education libraries are one type of library that is fast responding to implement the results of the development of information technology.
If initially the library is only an institution or institution that stores and disseminates information in the form of books or papers, then technological developments make information in paper media change in the form of digital data, and become a major part of accelerating changes in information technology globally, affecting the existence of libraries as an information dissemination system. The acceleration of information occurs because of the flow of digital information through the internet media. Digital technology can receive all information from images, numbers, sounds, text, and audio. These developments affect human needs, namely the demand for information easily and quickly.
In the digital world, connectivity has a broader meaning than just allowing two or more people to interact. To meet the needs of network connectivity, space is created so that everyone can share information, collaborate and interact. This technology is known as the Internet. Some supporting factors for the acceleration of information systems are due to several reasons, namely: The availability of communication technology that enables the creation, collection and manipulation of information. International network infrastructure to support connection and operability for users. Online information is starting to develop.
A general internet access framework has emerged. The library develops according to the cultural conditions of the people The shift from conventional library forms to digital online is a necessity for information needs that are moving fast. In the history of the development of libraries in Indonesia, higher education libraries are one type of library that is fast responding to implement the results of the development of information technology.
If at first the library is only an institution or institution that stores and disseminates information in the form of books or paper, then technological developments make information in paper media change in the form of digital data, and become a major part of the library repository. The repository can be understood as a warehouse, library or an institution where data is stored, both data in physical form (paper, books, printouts) and in digital form. Its development then identifies the repository library as a place for storing data in digital form at institutions called libraries, which then commonly called a digital library. This digital library allows everyone from different places and at the same time can enjoy data sources in the same repository library, or institutional savings.
The repository can be understood as a warehouse, library or an institution where data is stored, both data in physical form (paper, books, printouts) and in digital form. Its development then identifies the repository library as a place for storing data in digital form at institutions called libraries, which then commonly called a digital library. This digital library allows everyone from different places and at the same time can enjoy data sources in the same repository library.
Repository AsScientific Special Publishing
Changes in the transfer of information in the application of technology in libraries are very significant changes ranging from computerized library-based service systems that we are familiar with to library automation, to changes in storage of collections from printed to digital. Application of automation in libraries in principle does not cause new problems except only on technical issues of application in libraries. As with the change in management of collections from printing to digital form which then raises new problems. Debates about digital libraries, the concept of open access, and copyright issues still haunt the process of managing collections and disseminating information in libraries. Therefore, several terms emerge around the application of the concept and scope of the repository library that cannot be separated in the study of library science.
The digital library does not stand alone, but is linked to other sources of information, and its information services are open to users throughout the world. Digital library collections are not limited to electronic documents instead of printed forms, the scope of the collection even reaches digital artifacts that cannot be replaced by printed forms.
Digital libraries are the same as regular libraries, only using computer-based work procedures and digital resources. Before the term "digital library" became popular, librarians often talked about electronic libraries. The characteristics of the electronic library are as follows: 1). Use computers to process library resources; 2). Use electronic channels to connect information providers with information users; 3). Utilize electronic transactions that can be carried out with the help of staff if requested by users; and 4). Use electronic means to store, manage and convey information to users.
Therefore, the use of the term digital library cannot be compared to the term electronic library and virtual library. To explain these three terms. Electronic Library is a library system that uses electronics to convey information and resources. So an electronic library can be defined as a collection of activities that combine collections, services and people who fully support the cycle of creation, dissemination, utilization and storage of information and knowledge in all formats that have been evaluated, organized, archived and stored.
Whereas Digital Library is an organization that provides resources and expert staff to select, arrange, provide access, translate, disseminate, maintain unity and maintain the continuity of collections in digital format, so that it is always available and inexpensive to use by certain communities or determined. Whereas Virtual Library is a merging of library information systems via the web or even electronically with collections in digital format. Besides that it can also mean as a library that can accommodate or provide the usual facilities provided by conventional libraries.
Another opinion is slightly different, a digital library is an information service where all sources of information are available in the form of computer processing results and have the functions of procurement, storage, retrieval and access which are then presented which are all done with the help of digital technology.
When viewed from the birth process of an information can be divided into two types, namely: printed and digital information. Digital born can be defined as material born in digital form, will be used and maintained as digital material. So, it can also be explained that digital born as the process of creating information using computer technology, or technological tools that can produce digital files, can only be read with technological aids and disseminated with the help of technology as well.
The digital term born is used to distinguish material from two other materials where the first material is categorized as digital born, while the second is not, such as: 1). Digital material that is the result of conversion from analog material, for example a painting taken with a digital camera, or a book that is scanned to be an electronic book and 2). Material is made as digital material but then printed on paper or other forms. There are six steps in managing digital born material, which starts from preparing, collecting and processing, cataloging, storing, preserving, and accessing digital design data.
The main pressure in managing a repository library is gray literature because it is a type of collection in a university library consisting of research publications or documents that are scientific works, seminar papers and government publications. Various authors provide various definitions of gray literature. According to C.P. Anger, that gray literature is library material not available in non-commercial printed materials; outer physical (cover), simple printing and binding; made for special purposes or for a limited circle. For example: proceedings, dissertations, bibliographies, reports and so on.
Management of digital preservation is always related to collection repository library, where digital preservation is a planned and managed activity to ensure that digital materials can continue to be used as long as possible. Basically, digital preservation is also an effort to ensure that digital material is not dependent on damage or technological change. In general, digital preservation includes various forms of activities, ranging from simple activities to create a copy of a digital material to be stored, to digital transformation activities that tend to be complex.
Usually, preservation activities are carried out at an institution or university, from all preservation activities that have been carried out then the results are stored specifically and can become what is called a repository. Gray Literature refers to published or unpublished research that is served to users not to be commercialized. Included in the gray literature category are government reports, policies, proceedings, research results and others. Gray literature is often the best source of reference and is up to date in certain fields of science and technology.
Open Access can be defined as the process of accessing the collection of library materials freely without being limited, which is a present phenomenon that is influenced by two things: 1). The existence of digital technology and 2). Access to scientific journal articles in digital form. The availability of access on the internet and the creation of journal articles digitally has enabled the expansion and ease of access. Specifically, open access refers to a variety of digital literature that is available online and for free, and is free fro So, the availability of articles for free on the internet allows everyone to read, retrieve, copy, distribute, print, trace, or make a full association with the article.
Explore it to create an index, distribute it as input data to software, or use it for various purposes that do not violate the law, without having to face financial, legal, or technical obstacles other than obstacles that cannot be released from the ability to access the internet itself. The only limitation in terms of reproduction and distribution, and the only role of copyright in this field, should only be in the form of granting the right to the author to determine the integrity of the article he wrote and to award him in the form of citation. The idea of open access cannot be separated from three movements or agreements involving hundreds of information institutions, all binding or copyright or licensing restrictions.
Basically, the above definition does not conflict with the principle of copyright. The legal basis used for open access is usually official permission granted by the copyright holder or a statement that the literature in question is in the public domain. Because it has received permission from the copyright owner, a scientific work that has an open access status does not actually delete, amend, or violate the copyright.
The foundation used by open access actually provides three options that free them from attachment to the publisher, namely;
1). Retain it, is a choice that causes the author to retain copyright and allows the user to reproduce his work provided that only for the sake of education and science, if the user wants to do more than that there must be permission from the author;
2). Share it, is a choice that emerged in the digital environment when the Creative Commons licensing phenomenon emerged as an institution that emerged in 2001 and changed the slogan "all rights reserved" to "some rights reserved." The author may choose various possibilities for granting the exploitation rights of his work. in the form of a license. For example, licensing to retain the rights as an author, but allowing everyone to use his work for any purpose, including commercial purposes. Or allow duplication or distribution as long as it remains through publishers that adhere to the principle of open access; 3). Transfer it, is an option in which the author surrenders his exploitation rights to the publisher who will commercialize his work, but still retains the rights as an original writer who will allow him to reproduce or publish back his work without the approval of the first publisher as long as it is not for commercial purposes.
The characteristics of open access are: to apply to royalty free literature, where the author does not receive direct financial compensation; free of price barriers, such as subscriptions, license fees, fees for paying every read/downloaded (pay per view); generally considered also free from permission constraints, such as copyright and licensing restrictions. There are several causes that give rise to an open access service model, namely:
1.There are ethical arguments for publicly funded research to be publicly available. Research is an international activity. This makes its accessibility across national boundaries;
2.The internet provides fast access, modern harvesting techniques and search engines make it possible to find relevant publications if they are stored in an open access repository with certain metadata standards. If all writers do this. The world of research will be available at your fingertips. There is evidence that articles available in the open access repository have more access to the reader in the citation.
3.There are concerns over research constraints caused by journal subscription fees, both electronic and printed paper, so that libraries with limited budgets no longer provide as many journals as needed by researchers;
4.There are also concerns that in traditional scientific publishing, most of the work of writing, reviewing, editing is done freely by the public and that publishers make excessive profits from the actual publishers only make available. In conventional publishing, an institution subscribes to a publication channel only to get electronic access or printed copies of paper.
To upload opn access works, it can be done in two ways, namely; first, Green Route: the author can do self-archiving at the time of submission of publications whether gray literature publications (usually internal non-peer-reviewed), peer-reviewed journal publications, peer-review conferencing process papers or monographs. Second, Gold Routes; the writer or the author's institution may pay a fee to the publisher at the time of publication, the publisher then makes available or free material for access.
The barriers to the concept of open access are;
1). Loss of income from the publisher. The main objection to Green Open Access comes from publishers and community groups who depend on business subscriptions for their publications, Green Open Access will threaten the sustainability of their business. However, until now there is no evidence that Green Open Access is damaging the publishing business model. On the contrary, Green Open Access has a positive impact on increased utilization and quotation. While commercial publishers provide additional value-added services that can offset the impact of open access on the current business mode.
2). Copyright Agreements between authors and publishers can hamper Green Open Access, but to date between 80% to 90% of publicity channels allow authors to implement Green Open Access even though some writers insist on providing open access publications after the embargo period has passed. In contrast, some of the most well-known journal publishers, do not claim copyrights from the authors but only a license to publish, leaving the copyright of the author or their institution.
Of the two obstacles above can be overcome by implementing the freedom of access movement, namely copyright that can be transferred to anyone through the freedom for anyone to access and retrieve the relevant scientific work. In the application of copyright law, there are also gaps that can be done to avoid the effects of copyright law.
The definition of collection in the copyright law No.19 of 2002 is called a creation. The use of the two terms collections and creations are considered to have the same meaning, that is, every work of the creator who shows authenticity in the fields of science, art and literature (Article 1, paragraph 3). Meanwhile, digital collections are interpreted as works created by the translation which are protected by copyright law. The statement is regulated in Article 12 paragraph 1 point (1) of the Copyright Act, as following;
"In this law protected works are creations in the fields of science, art and literature which include: works of translation, interpretation, adaptations, anthology, databases, and other works resulting from the translation."
In managing its digital collection sources, especially the work of results research and journals, libraries should pay more attention to the four principles of digitization rules, namely: privacy, accuracy, ownership, and accessibility of information. The meaning of the four rules is:
1). Privacy, which involves confidentiality which means the problem of security of digital collection databases, so the digital library network system has a strong security system. The library also provides restrictions on the collection of local content that will be accessed, for example, users cannot download the file. The goal is to prevent plagiarism or piracy of digital creation on a large scale.
2). Property, regarding the obligation to hand over printed and recorded works that have been submitted to the library is the full property of the library, because there is an agreement or license on the statement in advance.
3). Accuracy. This is regulated in Article 25 paragraph 1 of the Copyright Law that; "Electronic information about creator rights management information may not be deleted or changed." Based on this article, the library in digitizing the collection still includes the original author's identity, and the task of the library is only to publish information. For example, for the authenticity of the author's identity, every page in the digital collection in the footer section is marked with a copyright (©).
4). Access rights, all local content collections can be accessed freely and can be read in full (full text). However, users cannot download these digital files.
In the process of building a repository needs to be prepared are; First, clear Operational Procedures are closely related to the policies of the leadership of the institution, for example regulations for storing scientific works, issues of copyright and others. Second, facilities and infrastructure in the form of hardware, software, networks and others. Third, Content Management Repository is determining what content must be owned in a university repository library. Fourth, the librarians' readiness in question is the need for technically and non-technically skilled workers in using information technology devices.
Management of repositories in campus libraries must have a function as a place for archives that collects and maintains institutional data in digital form that can be obtained anytime and anywhere. Second, the repository is used for easy access to obtain information that has implications for the acceleration of research and scientific development. This is because if the institution's source of information is available in digital form, people can easily obtain and use it without having to be hit by problems of distance and time, anyone and at any time as long as they are connected to the internet. Third, the repository functions as a means of imaging the institution. If the library is able to present information that is owned by the institution and can be accessed easily, it will be able to raise the dignity and image of the library, because ultimately people can make the library as a data center.
In managing repositories, three things need to be prepared: first, infrastructure consisting of preparation of software and hardware, secondly preparation of human resources that will run the repository management system, and Third, there is a clear policy as a work guideline in managing repositories, because in managing repositories always in contact with Copyright issues. The repository management process in the campus library goes through several stages, as follows. First, the process of digitizing the library collection. Second, accepting the submission of scientific papers in digital form (softcopy) and then processed to then be served on the digital library web. Third, through the process of uploading digital files independently by students who have finished their studies or lecturers and the academic community.
In repository management there are several factors that influence the success of repository management. This can be seen from several theories about repositories, namely: there are four components that affect the management of repositories in the library, namely First, the existence of Institutionally Defined. Second, Local Content. Third, Cumulative and Perpetual, and Fourth, Interoperability and open access. Two factors affect the success of managing a repository in an institution, namely internal factors and external factors. The success factor in managing a repository in a campus library can be seen from eight indicators, namely: the existence of Integration with planning; funding model; interoperability, which is how to unite various computer systems in order to "work together" and communicate well with each other; digital evaluation and measurement, promotion and preservation strategies
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