PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIER LITERATURE
By. Gatot Subrata, S.Kom
Hendrikus Franz Josef
Reference material or reference book is a book which are arranged and processed in such a way as to be used as sources to find certain information and are not to be read whole. Library collections can be grouped into primary collections, secondary collections, and tertiary collections. Collection secondary is often referred to as general reference material, while Tertiary collections are called by means of bibliography.
Keywords: Reference sources, reference collection
Library collections can be grouped into primary collections, secondary collections, and tertiary collections. Secondary collections are often referred to as general reference materials, while tertiary collections are referred to as bibliographic means of bibliography. In the library, these three types of collections are placed in the reference room. The librarian who serves him is called the reference librarian. Samuel Greens, considered the father of referral services in America, founded the formal referral service agency at the Worcester Public Library in Massachusetts in 1876. He emphasized the importance of the purpose of the person asking for information. For this reason, Green made a written statement, so that the librarian sees himself not only as a custodian of the archives but rather as an active liaison between information and its users. Lawyer Justin Windsor in 1877 stated that his success as a lawyer was because he felt he had a reliable librarian.
General reference materials or reference sources are also known as reference collections. The American Library Association Glossary of Library Terms mentions two definitions for reference materials, namely: (a) a book that is compiled and processed in such a way as to be used as a source to find certain information and not to be read in its entirety; and (b) a book whose use is limited in the library building.
Irawati Singarimbun added that the facts in the reference materials were collected from various sources in a special arrangement so that they could be used easily and quickly. Then he classified general reference materials into two types, namely: (a) types of reference materials that provide direct information such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, directories, natural books, biographical sources, geographical sources or maps, statistical books, while (b) types of reference materials that provide clues to a source of information such as catalogs, bibliographies, indexes, and abstracts. This section is called in terms of bibliographical means.
Bibliographic tools or bibliographic tools are tools or means to find bibliographies. A bibliography is a list of publications, whether printed or recorded. All written works are conceptually meant to be read by people other. The collection of readable written works can form the accumulation of knowledge. Therefore, the more written works that are read, the stronger they will be accumulation of that knowledge. That knowledge is increasingly spread along with the spread of written works.
There is a bibliography facility that records ancient library materials, on the other hand, there is a bibliographic tool that only records newly published library materials. There are also bibliographic restrictions based on region or region and there are also bibliographies that limit the year of publication.
Benefits that can be obtained by using secondary collections and collections tertiary are: a. to provide direct and basic information or explanation about a matter that you want to know to eliminate doubts about the meaning of a particular problem; b. add vocabulary owned; not only knowing a word or term, but even knowing the basic information, both regarding the origin of the word/term, its use, pronunciation, history, word equivalents, opposite words and so on; c. can be used to find out the ins and outs of a country or other place in the world, even about places that have never been visited; d.describe the biographies of prominent and well-known figures, including the work of awards received, their experiences of how to be successful, e. improve skills and abilities in using basic information sources, f. support research activities, g. to assist librarians and other users in searching for information.
Each published encyclopedia, usually describes many articles in detail, often accompanied by a reading list in each section or subsection; there are short descriptions and there are long descriptions with information on various data such as the birth and death dates of famous scientists, geographic locations and historical events. This coverage makes encyclopedias ideal to be said as reference material. And large encyclopedias are often the focus of librarians to provide answers to various questions posed by library users or other information seekers.
B. TYPE OF PRIMARY COLLECTION
Encyclopedias can be defined as: "A scientific work contains a very wide range of information, in various fields of knowledge, and is usually arranged alphabetically by subject or name". The term “very broad” does not mean everything. The term simply describes as something so extraordinary, as with the term used by Diderot, that an encyclopedia has a mystical value. Not mystical, which means unreal, but approaching it because it is so extraordinary.
The library materials written at the bottom of the article help the reader to be able to find additional information needed to enrich scientific insight or scientific treasures, or to obtain explanations that are considered incomplete when reading articles in an encyclopedia. An article in an encyclopedia is a summary of a very long concept, not just a snippet or part of the concept.
Hugh Kenner cleverly summarized the content and purpose of the encyclopedia as follows: "Encyclopedias make us jump from a very long period of time, and encyclopedias are something that cannot be written by just one person, and everyone should read it."
It is not impossible to criticize an encyclopedia. If this exists, it may be because the compilation of an encyclopedia takes quite a long time so that once the compilation is complete, it may be the knowledge that is needed in what it covers has moved forward and developed, so that what is described in the encyclopedia can be said to be behind.
Currently, various encyclopedias are compiled with various purposes as well. But the point is to collect and organize knowledge that is scattered in different parts of the world, or to meet the information needs of readers. Almost all areas of knowledge and information are described, detailed and explained through various articles that are compiled in detail and supported by accurate facts.
Based on the scope of encyclopedias can be divided into:
1. General encyclopedia, which does not limit its scope to a particular subject.
a. Ensiklopedi Nasional Indonesia. Jakarta: Ichtisar, 1983-.;
Encyclopedia Americana. New York: Grolier, 1986. 30 volume.
b. Special encyclopedia, which limits its scope to certain fields or subjects.
Ensklopedi Islam. Jakarta: Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, 1993. 5 volume;
Ensiklopedi Ijmak: Persepakatan Ulama dalam Hukum Islam. Jakarta:
Perhimpunan Pengembangan Pesantren dan Masyarakat (P3M),
Syekh Imam Syihabuddin Abi Abdillah Yaquut bin Abdullah al-Hamawiy arRuumiy al-Baghdadiy. Mu’jam Al-Udaba’. Beirut: Dar Ihya’ atTuraats al-Arabiyyi. 1936. (c18) volume.
The dictionary contains a list of the basic words of a language, arranged alphabetically. A good dictionary is accompanied by information about form, punctuation, function, origin or history of words, meanings, synonyms, antonyms, syntax and expressions of each word. There is a dictionary that contains all the information in full, and there are dictionaries that contain only a few parts. Other terms from the dictionary are; glossary, glossary, lexicon.
According to its content, dictionaries are divided into:
a. common Dictionary
Example: Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, 1990;
Abi al-Fadhal Jamaluddin Muhammad bin Mukrim ibn Mandhur al-Afriqiy
al-Mishriy. Lisan al-Arab. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1997. 15 jilid.
Example: DR. Abdush-Shobur Marzuq. Al-Mu’jam al-A’lam wal-maudhu’at fi alQur’an al-Karim. Beirut: Dar al-Syuruq. 1995. 3 jilid
Samih ‘Athifuzzain. Mu’jam al-Amtsal fi al-Qur’an al-Karim. Kairo: Dar
al-Kutub al-Mishriy. 2000.
Example: Ahmad Abthoni IKM. Kamus Lengkap Teknik (Inggris – Indonesia).
Surabaya: Gitamedia, 1998.
Kamus Lengkap Dunia Komputer. Yoygakarta: Andi, 2002
According to the number of languages used, dictionaries can be divided into three groups, namely:
d. one language dictionary
Example: Al-Munjid. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr
Samih ‘Athifuzzain. Mu’jam Tafsir mufradat alfadh al-Qur’an al-Karim.
Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Libanoniy. 2000
Example: Ahmad Warson Munawwir. Al-Munawwir Kamus Arab – Indonesia.
Yogyakarta: Pondok Pesantren Al-Munawwir. 1984.
John M. Echols dan Hassan Shadily. Kamus Inggris – Indonesia. Jakarta:
M. Mansoeor. English – Arabic Dictionary of Political, Diplomatic and
Conference Terms. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1961.
f. Dictionaries of various languages or polyglot dictionaries, namely dictionaries whose terms are explained in various languages.
Sugiarto. et al. Kamus Indonesia – Daerah: Jawa, Bali, Sunda, Madura.
Jakarta: Gramedia, 2001
Many benefits can be obtained from dictionaries such as:
-A place to find the meaning of words,
-A place to check spelling, equivalence, and use of hyphens,
-A place to find word pronunciations,
-The place to look for history, origins and derivatives of words,
-Where to find synonyms, antonyms and homonyms of words,
-Where to find abbreviations, acronyms, signs and symbols of words,
-A place to find frequently used foreign words
3.Almanac and Yearbook
Almanac is a book that contains information about data or statistics relating to the state, events, officials, subjects and their lives. Many subject almanacs are published on an annual or semiannual basis, which are sometimes referred to as with Yearbook or Annuals or yearbook. An almanac usually has a more general subject than a yearbook.
There are almanacs that are arranged chronologically, based on time, which generally contain information about weather forecasts, statistical data for organizations or institutions, and records of real and up-to-date events or events. Included in this category are; The Hammond Almanac, The People's Almanac, The Reader's Digest Almanac and yearbook, Whitaker's Almanac, The World Almanac and book of facts, The Guinness book of world records published by Bantam books in New York, contains the most content. Such as the largest and the smallest, the highest and the lowest, the longest and the shortest, and so on. Of these almanacs, the most widely used are The World Almanac and book of facts, then Information Please Almanac, and then Whitaker's Almanac.
A yearbook is a reference material that contains information regarding records of events, the development of a problem or subject in the past year. This book is widely used in libraries to answer reference questions.
There are yearbooks which are very broad and general in scope, which aim to provide the most up-to-date information contained in encyclopedias. This type is often called a supplement encyclopedia. There are also yearbooks that limit their content to information and facts that develop and occur within a year, limit the subject, or the place of occurrence. Yearbooks are very useful for historical research because they are presented in full and published immediately after certain events have occurred.
The book, entitled Fact on file yearbook, The annual register of world events, is included in the general yearbook category. Books of this type can also be a quick reference material. Both books are often used to research data, events, and famous people in the year of publication. The fact on file yearbook is a collection of data from Fact on file, published weekly.
In Indonesia, we recognize the existence of the Indonesian Police Almanac, which is published by the Indonesian National Police. This almanac contains information regarding incidents, discipline and performance improvements related to the National Police in carrying out their duties and service to the community. Also, the book Recordings of Events published by Sinar Harapan publisher. This book contains important events that occurred in Indonesia which had previously been published in the Sinar Harapan daily, which has now changed its name to Suara Pembaruan.
There is an essential difference between an almanac and a yearbook, namely;
-In the almanac, there are also retrospective data;
-The most basic purpose of a yearbook is to record the annual activities of a
particular country, subject or region.
4. Handbooks and manuals
It is difficult to distinguish between handbooks and manuals, the two are often considered as synonyms, or because of the difficulty of giving a definition, they are called compendiums.
The handbook contains information on instructions and basic problem identification. This book contains a lot of information and information in the form of tables, symbols, formulas and terms related to a subject being discussed. The main purpose of writing handbooks and manuals is as a quick reference material in one field or branch of knowledge. The emphasis is more on existing knowledge than on new developments. Scientific handbooks are supported by a body of knowledge on related subjects.
Examples of this group book are:
Endang Prahastuti. Petunjuk Teknis Praktikum Matakuliah Modiste FPTK
Universitas Negeri Malang. Malang: UM, 1999.
Robert. C. Rosaler. ed. Standard Handbook of Plant Engineering, New
York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
The Concise Oxford Dictionary succinctly defines a biography as writing about a person's life. More fully, a biography can be explained as the writing of a person's life that is obtained from memory, from written material or orally.
Meanwhile, Harold Nicholson provides a definition that can be applied to reference works; biographies can be material "history", in this view the biography must be carefully structured and able to describe a person in relation to the situation that existed when that person lived. A biography must describe a person or individual, all the human characters they have, not only presenting the good but also the bad. The biography should be written in good language and in a touching style.
The purpose of writing a biography, according to Sir Sydney Lee, editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, is to describe the personal life of someone who is respected or exemplary. Therefore, an ideal biography can reveal various events that have been experienced by a person directly or indirectly.
Likewise with the sides of his personality and the results he achieved in his life. Biography should be prepared objectively, precisely and balanced. Virginia Wolf, a famous biographer, stated that basically biographers write and select and organize the information they get and then describe it in a way that makes it feel alive.
There are two attractions of biographies for users, namely to fulfill our curiosity about someone's personality and to gain real knowledge through other people. In other words to find out what really happened through the experiences of others.
In terms of the scope of its content, the biographical sources can be divided into:
a. universal general biographical sources such as: World Biography. New York, 1948-;
b. universal general biographical sources such as:
Apa dan Siapa: sejumlah orang Indonesia1983-1984. Jakarta, Grafiti Pres,
c. universal general biographical sources such as: Hart. Michael. Seratus
tokoh yang palingberpengaruh dalam sejarah. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya,
Sources of individual biographies can be divided into two types, namely:
a. Autobiography such as the work of A.H. Nasution: Memenuhi panggilan
tugas. 8 volume, Jakarta: Gunung Agung;
b. Biography such as Adams, Cindy. Bung Karno: Penyambung lidah rakyat
Indonesia. Jakarta: Masagung, 1988.
6. Geographical Sources
Geographical sources are library materials that contain information about places, mountains, rivers, national boundaries, territorial boundaries, and so on related to location.
Various types of library materials included in the geographic source group is as follows : -Maps, such as Malang Municipal Map;
-Atlas like Atlas Indonesia. Bandung, 1977;
-Gazetir, such as List of Island Names in Indonesia (List of Island Names).
Compiled by the Naval Hydrology Service. Published by the National Center
for Scientific Documentation - LIPI, 1975
-Travel guide books, such as Business and pleasure in Jakarta: an official
tourist guide book for the metropolitan city of Jakarta. Jakarta, 1973.
Bibliography is a list of books in a particular field or subject, where the nature of the existence (location) of the book is not limited to one particular library. Bibliographies are usually arranged alphabetically by author or chronologically or by subject. Sometimes a bibliography is accompanied by an annotation and is called an annotated bibliography.
The purpose of a bibliography is to help users know the existence of a document or identify a document or other library material according to their needs.
National Library of the Republic of Indonesia. Bibliografi Nasional Indonesia. Jakarta: National Library.
Adwityani S. Bibliografi Beranotasi tahun 1997-2002: Buku Bacaan Umum/Dewasa dan Remaja. Jakarta: Yayasan Buku Utama, 2004;
A catalog in library terms is a means of listing the entire library collection. In this case, the catalog can be divided into:
a. Library catalog, which is a list of books or collections owned by a particular library
Katalog Perpustakaan Pondok Pesantren Al-Hikam Callimachus. Penakes
Jerome Samuel. Katalog Beranotasi Ensiklopedi, Kamus, dan Daftar
Istilah Bahasa Indonesia (1741-1995). Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2001
b. Master Catalog, a list of books or collections that are not limited to one library only. Of course, in this kind of catalog there is an indication of the existence of the collection.
Tabulas Septe Custodiarum Super Bibliam di Inggris tahun 1300.
Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschap di Indonesia tahun
Katalog Induk Disertasi Indonesia. Jakarta: PDII-LIPI.
An index is a physical tool that refers to the part of a collection of documents that is potentially relevant to a request for information. There is an index that is integrated with a book, and there is a separate index with the library material it indexes. Index can group into:
a. Book index, contains a list of important words accompanied by numbers that refer to the document collection section. This type of index is usually located at the end of a book.
b. Index book, is a stand-alone book which can consist of one or more
volumes containing a list of words accompanied by a number that refers to
a section or page of a book or a group of books.
Akasah, Badaruttamam. Index Al-Qur’an (Index Tafsir Al-Qur’an).Bandung: Badar, 1972.
Mohammad Fuad Abdul Baqi. Al-Mu’jam al-Mufahras li-alfadhi alQur’an al-Karim. Bandung: Angkasa.
A.J. Wensinck. Concordance et Indices de la Tradition Musulmane: les
six livres, le Musnad D’al-Darimi, le Muwatta’ de Malik, le Musnad de Ahmad ibn Hanbal / Al-Mu’jam al-Mufahras li-alfadhi al-Hadits an-Nabawi: ‘an al-Kutub as-Sittah wa’an Musnad adDarimi wa Muwaththo’ Malik wa Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1936. 8 Volume.
An index magazine is a serial publication with regular publications containing a list of articles published in primary magazines.
Indeks Majalah Ilmiah Indonesia, Jakarta PDII-LIPI, 1959- Published every two years.
Index Medicus Including Bibliography of Medical Review. Bethesda,
Maryland: National Library of Medicine, 1960-.
Library Literature. New York: The H.W. Wilson Company, 1921- Bi-monthly, with annual and three-year accumulations. Library Literature, covering about 220 magazine titles, about 140 of which are American magazines, while non-English magazines covered ranged from 12-15% but does not cover librarian magazines published in Indonesia.
Library literature is not selective, meaning it covers all published in the Library magazine, however in short the articles covered, news and book scales, and note.
What is meant by abstract here is an abstract magazine, which is a serial publication with a regular frequency that contains essays or abstracts of important articles on certain subjects published in primary magazines. It can also be that this abstract comes from the core monograph essays containing research results, research reports, patents, and other primary sources in certain fields.
Abstract magazines also function as an index so that they can be used as a means of information gathering and provide a brief overview of ongoing research.
There are two main purposes of the abstract, namely:
a. Save time for users by checking abstracts and checking whether the articles made in the abstract are useful or not for users;
b. Assist in conducting a retrospective search without seeing the actual article. In this case, it can be said that 48% of researchers use abstracts instead of actual articles.
Kumpulan Abstrak Tesis – Disertasi Universitas Negeri Malang. Malang
Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA). London: Library Association, 1950-. The scope of this magazine is very broad, including information science and librarianship. LISA is international in the sense of abstracting magazines published in 100 countries in 20 languages.
D. TYPES OF TERRIER COLLECTIONS
1. Bibliography of the bibliography. The purpose of tertiary literature is to find out or search for secondary information:
Leeson, Ida. 1954. A Bliography of Bibliographies of the South Pacific.
London: Oxford University Press, 1954.
Kemp, Herman C. Annotated bibliography of bibliographies on
Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1990;
Indonesia. Department of Education and Culture. Bibliography of Indonesian. Jakarta: Library Development Project – Ministry of Education and Culture, 1977.
Directory comes from the word direct which means pointing. Directory is a reference material that contains a list of organizations or individuals, arranged alphabetically or sometimes systematically. So directories only provide designation information, not direct information.
There are individual directories that contain the address, profession, office or other important information concerning the person. And there is also a directory of institutions or organizations that usually contain information such as addresses, officials, functions and other information related to the organization. Thus the directory is
all library materials or documents that enable us to find and find information about organizations or individuals
Directory of Islamic Boarding Schools I. Jakarta: Islamic Boarding School and Community Development Association (P3M), 1986.
Bambang Hariyanto. Primary Secondary Education Scholarship Directory
and High, Domestic and Foreign in 2004-2005..Jakarta: the kings, 2006
Dhiman, Anil K. and Sinha, Suresh C. 2002. Academic Libraries. New Delhi: Ess Ess
Katz, William A. 1982. Introduction to reference work, vol.1 Basic information sources.
4 th edition. New York: McGrawHill.
Lembaga Perberdayaan Perpustakaan dan Informasi (LpPI). 2001. Pedoman Pengelolaan
Perpustakaan Madrasah. Yogyakarta: FKBA.
Mustafa, Badollahi dan Abdul Rahman Saleh. 1994. Bahan rujukan umum. Jakarta :
Sinha, Suresh C. and Dhiman, Anil K.. 2002. Special Libraries: Research & Technical
Libraries. New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications.
Sulistyo-Basuki. 1991. Pengantar Ilmu Perpustakaan. Jakarta : Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Trimo, Soejono. 1997. Buku Panduan untuk Matakuliah Reference Work dan Bibliography
dengan Sistem Modular. Jakrata: Bumi Aksara.
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